Cell sites and cell towers in a mobile cellular network – Commsbrief (2022)

We use our mobile phones every day, and we can connect to the cellular network for phone calls, text messages and mobile data no matter where we go. While the network coverage and quality depend on which mobile operator we are using, the connectivity is available irrespective of our location and mobility. This is because our mobile network operators connect us to their cell towers that can be found throughout towns and cities for nationwide network coverage. So let’s find out what these cell towers are, where they can be found and how they connect us to the mobile network.

A mobile network consists of a large number of cells

A mobile cellular network consists of a large number of interconnected coverage zones called cells that are deployed throughout the geographical areas that a mobile network operator wants to cover. These cells are created by the radiations from the cell towers owned by the mobile operators.

Our cellular service providers employ various 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G technologies such as GSM, UMTS, CDMA2000, LTE, and NR built into the radio units within the cell towers. In technical terms, the cell towers are called radio base stations or base stations. The radio units in the base station emit the mobile signals (radio waves) at various frequencies that our mobile phones and other SIM-enabled devices can pick up to get us connected.

Cell towers are tall masts carrying radio antennas

Cell towers or radio base stations are the tall masts carrying cellular antennas that you can spot from a distance. A cellular tower can have many antennas installed on it, and the same tower may be used for 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G cells depending on the coverage of a given mobile operator.

The radio base station is installed at a mobile operator’s site, also known as a “cell site”. The electricity powers it, and this power determines how far the radio signal can travel. The higher the power, the longer the signal can travel. These signals are sent at specific frequencies to don’t interfere with signals coming from other base stations.

Only the mobile phone that the signal is intended for can decode that signal based on the digital techniques used by mobile operators. The frequency also determines how far the signal can travel; lower frequencies travel much further than higher frequencies.The picture below shows what a cell tower (base station) looks like.

Cell sites and cell towers in a mobile cellular network – Commsbrief (1)

Cell site means the location where a cell tower is installed

A cell site is a location or “site” where a mobile network operator installs a 2G, 3G, 4G or 5G radio base station (cell tower). Mobile operators own or rent many cell sites within a country to place their base stations in order to provide nationwide cellular coverage to their customers.

One cell site may contain the necessary radio equipment for multiple cells created by the same amount of radio units. The most prominent indication of a cell site is a cellular tower equipped with the antennas and necessary equipment to transmit radio signals to mobile phones and receive signals back from the mobile phones.

(Video) How Cell Towers Work: Hands-On!

If you are on a phone call and start moving away from the cell range within a cell site serving you, your call can be handed over to the nearest available cell. That way, the mobile network makes sure that you stay connected when on the move so that your calls (or any other services) can continue without interruptions.

A cell is a network coverage zone created by radio waves

A cell is a network coverage area created by transmitting and receiving signals from the antennas of a radio base station. The cells are defined by the range (in kilometres) within which the base station can transmit and receive the mobile signals.

The cells are generally not omnidirectional but always in a specific targeted direction to avoid any potential interference with other nearby cells. However, for cell planning purposes and technical documentation, cells are represented as small hexagons, as shown below. The size of a cell is determined by its radiation power.

Generally, the larger cells are deployed on highways and rural areas, whereas smaller cells are deployed in busy towns and cities. Let’s now dive into the cell towers, but if you want to learn more about cells, you can check out my detailed post on the concept of cells in mobile communications and the various types, including macrocells, microcells and small cells.

Cell sites and cell towers in a mobile cellular network – Commsbrief (2)

Cell site consists of radio units and other radio equipment

The main installation at a cell site consists of a cabinet that contains radio units and other radio equipment connected through a backhaul to the radio network controller or mobile core network, depending on which network technology (3G, 4G, 5G etc.) is being used.

The radio units are assigned specific frequencies that mobile operators own as part of their frequency spectrum. The antennas for the radio units must be mounted at specific heights so that the resulting signals can reach the cellular devices with as few obstructions as possible.

These radio network entities are called base stations, and depending on the network technology, they can be called different things. In 2G GSM networks, the base station is called Base Transceiver Station. The base station is called Node B in UMTS networks, eNodeB in LTE networks, and gNodeB in 5G networks.

Ownership of cell sites and base stations

The cell sites and base stations are owned by mobile network operators such as Vodafone, T-Mobile, Rogers, AT&T, Verizon etc. The base stations represent the radio part of the mobile network, and one base station typically contains multiple cells which operate on specific radio frequencies.

(Video) How Cell Service Actually Works

The radio network is what connects a mobile phone to the mobile network. When you are using your mobile phone to make a call, it is the radio network that your phone communicates with first. The radio network then connects your phone to the other parts of the mobile network and/or any other external networks. Let’s have a look at the simplified network diagram below to visualise this concept.

Cell sites and cell towers in a mobile cellular network – Commsbrief (3)

As we may observe from the simplified diagram above, the mobile core network is a central part of the mobile network that allows mobile subscribers to use all the services they are entitled to. In addition, it provides vital functions such as subscriber profile information, subscriber location, authentication of services and the necessary switching functions for voice and data sessions. Both the radio and core networks have evolved considerably with the evolution of mobile networks from 2G to 3G, 3G to 4G, and then 4G to 5G.

Types of cellular networks – Analogue and Digital

There have been two main types of mobile networks: Analogue and digital. The analogue networks represented the first generation (1G); however, they are now obsolete. The 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G networks are digital cellular networks.

The first generation of mobile networks (1G) in the early 1980s used analogue technologies. These mobile networks were deployed in different parts of the world using various analogue standards. The most popular standards were Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS), Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT), Radio Telephone Network C (C-Netz) and Total Access Communications System (TACS).

However, analogue communication systems are usually more sensitive to noise in the air interface, which deteriorates the clarity of the speech. They also lack encryption capabilities, making them more vulnerable to security threats.

Digital networks followed analogue networks in the early 1990s, which marked the beginning of the type of mobile networks we see today. Digital systems are much more resilient to noise and offer much higher security levels than their analogue counterpart. The second generation of mobile networks employed various digital standards.

The most popular standards are Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System (D-AMPS), and Interim Standard 95 (IS-95, proprietary name: cdmaOne). The third, fourth and fifth generations of the mobile networks (3G, 4G and 5G) are also digital.

Cell sites and cell towers in a mobile cellular network – Commsbrief (4)
(Video) How does your mobile phone work? | ICT #1

Types of cell towers in 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G networks

While all generations of mobile networks have cell towers or base stations, there are different terminologies to refer to a base station for each of the generations. Let’s find out what base stations are called in 2G GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications), 3G UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System), 4G LTE (Long Term Evolution) and 5G NR (New Radio) networks.

The cell towers or base stations are called Base Transceiver Station or BTS in 2G GSM networks, Node B in 3G UMTS networks, eNodeB in 4G LTE networks and gNodeB or ng-eNodeB in 5G NR networks.

Cell towers or base stations in 2G GSM networks

In the second generation of mobile networks powered by GSM technology, the base stations are called Base Transceiver Stations or BTS for short. The word transceiver refers to the fact that the base station is doing a dual job of being a transmitter and a receiver, hence the term trans + ceiver.

In GSM networks, mobile phones are referred to as Mobile Stations or MS or short. The same terminologies continue to be used for the base stations in all the GSM networks enhancements, including GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) and EDGE (Enhanced Data for Global Evolution). Now you might think that the GSM networks are so old (originally launched in 1992), so when might you ever come across any of these BTS cell towers.

If your existing mobile operator is not using CDMA technologies (CDMA2000 and cdmaOne), they are highly likely to use GSM for the 2G services. It means that whenever you see an “E” or “G” symbol on your mobile phone screen, you are likely to be served by one of these BTS cell towers. If you are curious about these symbols on your phone, check out my dedicated post on the E symbol so you know what download speeds to expect.

Cell towers or base stations in 3G UMTS networks

In the third generation of mobile networks powered by UMTS technology, the base stations are called Node B. So Node B is just an equivalent of BTS but in 3G networks. The mobile phones in 3G networks are referred to as User Equipment or UE.

Node B can work with BTS to give customers a seamless user experience when accessing cellular services. This happens, for example, when you initiate a phone call in a rural area with only GSM coverage and during the call move into an area with UMTS coverage. As you move from the GSM coverage to UMTS coverage, the call is handed over from BTS to Node B.

If you ever notice the H or H+ symbol on your mobile phone, that is when you are served by a Node B. H or H+ symbols refer to High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) which is an enhancement to the 3G UMTS network. I have a dedicated post on HSPA if you want to know what to expect from this enhancement.

Cell towers or base stations in 4G LTE networks

In the fourth generation of mobile networks that are enabled by the LTE (Long Term Evolution) technology, the base stations are called Evolved Node B or eNodeB or eNB. When you see a 4G, 4G+, LTE or LTE+ symbol on your mobile phone screen, you are being served by an eNodeB.

(Video) How WiFi and Cell Phones Work | Wireless Communication Explained

Unlike GSM and UMTS networks, in 4G LTE, the base station eNodeB has more intelligence and responsibilities as part of the mobile radio network. In 4G networks, there are fewer nodes in the radio network than in 2G and 3G networks and, therefore, many mobility and control responsibilities. Since 4G LTE networks are backwards compatible, like 3G UMTS, eNodeB can work with Node B (3G) and BTS (2G) for calls or data sessions handovers.

Cell towers or base stations in 5G NR networks

The fifth generation of mobile networks is enabled by a technology called New Radio or NR. However, unlike the earlier technologies, 5G has the flexibility to be deployed in multiple ways to improve the data rates for customers. Multiple network architecture scenarios use different combinations of 5G radio, 5G core, 4G radio and 4G core networks.

There are two types of base stations in 5G NR networks: gNodeB (gNB) and Next-Generation Evolved Node B (ng-eNB). gNodeB is a base station that connects 5G phones when 5G radio and 5G core networks are used. ng-eNB is the base station that connects 4G phones when 4G radio and 5G core are used.

I have written a dedicated post on Node B, eNodeB, gNodeB and ng-eNB that dives into the technical details so you can find out, for example, what scenarios require gNodeB and ng-eNB? There is also a dedicated post on 5G New Radio (NR) that explains what 5G technology is and how it works.

Here are some helpful downloads

Thank you for reading this post. I hope it helped you in developing a better understanding of cellular networks. Sometimes, we need extra support, especially when preparing for a new job, studying a new topic, or buying a new phone. Whatever you are trying to do, here are some downloads that can help you:

Students & fresh graduates: If you are just starting, the complexity of the cellular industry can be a bit overwhelming. But don’t worry, I have created this FREE ebook so you can familiarise yourself with the basics like 3G, 4G etc. As a next step, check out the latest edition of the same ebook with more details on 4G & 5G networks with diagrams. You can then read Mobile Networks Made Easy, which explains the network nodes, e.g., BTS, MSC, GGSN etc.

Professionals: If you are an experienced professional but new to mobile communications, it may seem hard to compete with someone who has a decade of experience in the cellular industry. But not everyone who works in this industry is always up to date on the bigger picture and the challenges considering how quickly the industry evolves. The bigger picture comes from experience, which is why I’ve carefully put together a few slides to get you started in no time. So if you work in sales, marketing, product, project or any other area of business where you need a high-level view, Introduction to Mobile Communications can give you a quick start. Also, here are some templates to help you prepare your own slides on the product overview and product roadmap.



What is cell site in mobile communication? ›

A cell site is defined as the entire set of equipment needed to receive and transmit radio signals for cellular voice and data transmission; typically includes transmitters, receivers, power amplifiers, combiners, filters, a digital signal processor, a power supply and network interface modules.

What is the range of a mobile network tower? ›

Depending on terrain and other circumstances, a GSM Tower can replace between 3 and 80 km (2 and 50 mi) of cabling for fixed wireless networks. In addition, some technologies, such as GSM, have an additional absolute maximum range of 35 km (22 mi), which is imposed by technical limitations.

What is the difference between cell and cell site? ›

By definition, a cell site gives radio coverage to a cell. The cell site is a location or a point; the cell is a wide geographical area.

How does a cell phone communicate with a cell tower? ›

Whenever a cell phone is used, it emits an electromagnetic radio wave, called a radio frequency, that is received by the nearest cell tower's antenna. Once the cell tower receives this signal, it will transmit the signals to a switching center.

How many types of cell sites are there? ›

Even though there are a plethora of cell phone towers, most people are not aware that they can typically be classified into one of six types: monopole, lattice, guyed, stealth tower, water tower, and a small cell pole.

What is the role of a cell site tower or base station in mobile communication? ›

The main job of a cell tower is to elevate antennae that transmit and receive RF signals (radio frequency) from mobile phones and other cellular devices. A series of wires runs from the tower antennas to the base station equipment, which are usually located at ground level in a concealed manner.

What is minimum distance from cell tower? ›

The antenna rule As per DoT guidelines, if a mobile tower has 1 antenna , it should be installed at minimum distance of 20 metres from a house, in case of 2 antennas minimum distance should be 35 metres, for 4 antennas it should be 45 metres and for 6 antennas the minimum distance should be 55 metres.

What is the range of a 5G cell tower? ›

5G Tower Range

In general, the 5G Ultra Wideband network's signal can reach up to 1,500 feet without obstructions. Verizon is leveraging small cell technology to help deliver more 5G signal which directly increases the coverage and speed of the network.

How many phones can a cell tower support? ›

An average cellular tower allows about 30 simultaneous users for voice calls and 60 for 4G data.

How does a cell site work? ›

Cell Phone Towers (also called Base Stations), have electronic equipment and antennas that send and receive signals to and from cell phones. Antennas may be attached to free-standing towers or structures or may be mounted on non-tower structures such as building rooftops, billboards or church steeples.

What is cell site location? ›

A cell site is simply a cellular telephone base station or antenna where radio signals are sent and received. They come in many forms and can be found on the tops of buildings, on ridge lines or other high points throughout the country.

How big is a cell site? ›

Traditional Tower Height

Traditional cell towers, typically stand-alone towers, and they can be between 50-400 feet. The tallest towers can give service up to a range of 40 miles.

What type of structure is a cell phone tower? ›

A cell phone tower is an example of a frame structure.

What type of antenna is used in cell phone towers? ›

There are two major types of antenna used in cell tower based on functionality viz. omnidirectional and directional.

What makes a cell phone tower strong? ›

A cellular phone tower is made of different beams and struts. These are able to withstand tension (pulling) and compression (pushing) forces. They have a wide base which supports them and carries the weight of the rest of the tower.

What are the 3 types of towers? ›

Three tower types: Towers are usually classified into three categories: guyed or cable-supported, free-standing or self-standing, and monopole. The self-supporting and monopole towers are similar in that neither requires guy wires or any other support structure. Guyed type towers are usually the least expensive.

What are the 4 main cell types? ›

The Four Main Types of Cells
  • Epithelial Cells. These cells are tightly attached to one another. ...
  • Nerve Cells. These cells are specialized for communication. ...
  • Muscle Cells. These cells are specialized for contraction. ...
  • Connective Tissue Cells.

What are the 3 types of cell work? ›

There are three main types of cellular work: Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport. In chemical work the phosphorylation of reactants provides energy to drive the endergonic synthesis of products.

What is the importance of a cellphone tower? ›

The primary function of a cell tower is to ensure proper elevation to antennas that receive and transmit radio-frequency signals from cell phones and other devices. Sometimes to accommodate community aesthetic concerns, cell towers are camouflaged to resemble trees or flagpoles.

Why is a cellphone tower important? ›

Cell towers are an integral part of our critical telecommunication infrastructure. In the past, we were limited by where we could communicate from and how. Now dispatchers can use software on a cell phone to send and immediately receive communications, all thanks to cell towers.

How does a cell tower know your mobile device location and how is that important for mobile forensics? ›

Cell tower triangulation is similar to GPS tracking in many ways. Multiple towers are used to track the phone's location by measuring the time delay that a signal takes to return back to the towers from the phone. This delay is then calculated into distance and gives a fairly accurate location of the phone.

What is a safe distance from a cell site? ›

In an Israeli study, the relative risk for cancer was about 4 times greater within 350 meters (1148 feet) of the cell tower (Wolf et al. 1997). Based on findings like these, a minimum safety distance of 1/4 mile (1320 feet) might be considered prudent.

How many meters is a cell tower? ›

Most cell towers are between 14.9 metres (49 feet) and 35 metres (115 feet) in height, but can be as high as 45 metres (148 feet) to 65 metres (213 feet).

How much data can a cell tower handle? ›

Most carriers are designing 1.5-3 mbps to 2G towers, 5-10 mbps to 3G towers and 50-100 mbps to 4G towers. 2G - EDGE can have 8 users for every time slot, with around 6-8 dedicated for data, so around 40-50 users simultaneously.

How many towers are needed for 5G compared to 4G? ›

4G wavelengths have a range of about 10 miles. 5G wavelengths have a range of about 1,000 feet, not even 2% of 4G's range. So to ensure a reliable 5G signal, there needs to be a lot of 5G cell towers and antennas everywhere. We're talking on every lamppost, traffic light, etc.

How long will 4G towers be around? ›

No, 4G LTE shutdown will not be happening for atleast a decade. Therefore, the thing to remember is that 4G will not be going away anytime soon, regardless of how fast the 5G network grows. The plan is for existing 4G LTE networks to be used by carriers well into 2030.

Does 5G mean more cell towers? ›

5G needs many more cellular antennas, called “small cells,” than 4G. That's because it uses higher-frequency radio waves, which carry much more data but have shorter ranges.

Do all cell phone carriers use the same towers? ›

Each carrier has its own network towers (3G, LTE, and/or 5G) that operate each of its own cellular networks.

How much power does a cell tower require? ›

The average cellular base station, which comprises the tower and the radio equipment attached to it, can use anywhere from about one to five kilowatts (kW), depending on whether the radio equipment is housed in an air-conditioned building, how old the tower is and how many transceivers are in the base station.

How many channels does a cell tower have? ›

Each cell phone uses two frequencies per call -- a duplex channel -- so there are typically 395 voice channels per carrier. (The other 42 frequencies are used for control channels -- more on this on the next page.) Therefore, each cell has about 56 voice channels available.

What are the components of a cell site? ›

What Components are in a Cell Tower?
  • Physical space.
  • Heating or air conditioning (or both, depending on climate)
  • Equipment (antennas, etc.)
  • Power.
  • Backup power.
  • Telephone lines (generally fiber)
  • Wiring.
  • Fire protection.
13 Jan 2021

Is cell site enough evidence? ›

Cell site analysis can do more than identify the geographical location of a mobile device – in fact, when it comes to criminal defence, cell site analysis can prove to be invaluable in the pursuit of a fair trial and criminal justice.

Where is my local cell tower? ›

To find 4G LTE and 5G cell towers in your area, use a cell tower map website called CellMapper or the mobile applications Network Cell Info (Android) and OpenSignal (iOS). Additionally, field test mode on your mobile device and cell tower company websites are two more ways to find cell towers.

How many sectors are in a cell site? ›

A “cell sector” refers to a specific sector emanating from a cell tower. The number of sectors around a cell tower may vary by cellular provider but typically involve three separate 120-degree, pie-shaped arcs connected to form a circle of 360-degree coverage around the cell tower.

What is a small cell site? ›

A small cell is an umbrella term used to describe a miniature radio access point (AP) or wireless network base station with a low radio frequency (RF) power output, footprint and range.

How do you avoid cell sites? ›

How to Prevent Cell Phones From Being Tracked
  1. Turn off the cellular and Wi-Fi radios on your phone. The easiest way to accomplish this task is to turn on the “Airplane Mode” feature. ...
  2. Disable your GPS radio. ...
  3. Shut the phone down completely and remove the battery.

What type of signal is used in mobile? ›

Nowadays, mobile phones primarily use three technologies based on antenna cell networks. GSM (or 2nd generation mobile telephony – 2G) runs on the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz frequency bands.

How are cell towers arranged? ›

You may have noticed that the antennas on a cell tower are always arranged in a triangle. There are some sound technical and economic reasons for this, but we won't go into that here. But it does mean that a cell tower can tell from which of the three antenna arrays it is receiving a signal.

Do cell towers broadcast all directions? ›

Assuming that you are correct and the tower near your location has an antenna for the carrier you use, the next question is whether or not the beam from the antenna is pointed in your direction. Although we may, conceptually think of antennas as radiating in all directions, cell phone towers don't operate that way.

What are the features of a cell phone tower? ›

Cell Phone Towers (also called Base Stations), have electronic equipment and antennas that send and receive signals to and from cell phones. Antennas may be attached to free-standing towers or structures or may be mounted on non-tower structures such as building rooftops, billboards or church steeples.

What technology will replace cell phone towers? ›

LTE Direct is a device-to-device technology that does not use cell towers. Your device would discover thousands of other devices and services within 500 meters of your proximity. This would be useful, for example, to find your friend or a sale in a nearby store that may interest you.

How can I strengthen my mobile network? ›

Turning your phone's connection off and then back on is the quickest and easiest way to try and fix your signal woes. If you're moving around from one location to another, toggling Airplane mode restarts the Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and cellular network modems, which forces them to find the best signal in the area.

What is cell site location data? ›

A cell phone's location can be detected through cell site location information (CSLI) or. global positioning system (GPS) data. CSLI refers to the information collected as a cell. phone identifies its location to nearby cell towers.1 CSLI from nearby cell towers can.

What is police cell site? ›

Simply put, it is a process that's used to establish whether a mobile phone could have been in a particular geographical location or address by using call data records (CDRs) of a device that is attributed to a user.

What are the 4 types of mobile communication? ›

The different types of mobile communication systems are a mobile two-way radio, public land radio, mobile telephone and amateur (HAM) radio.

Can a cell tower track your location? ›

Cell Carrier Towers

Cell carriers can track your phone's location by identifying the towers you're connected to and measuring the time delay that a signal takes to make a round trip between the towers and your phone.

Why is it important to locate cell tower location? ›

One thing to note: Knowing where your closest 5G tower is located can help you get better 5G signal, but it's not a crucial step for most signal booster installations. As of 2022, most signal boosters only boost 4G/LTE signals for 4G/LTE/5G devices, so you don't have to worry about finding your closest 5G tower.

How can I find the location of a mobile tower? ›

To find 4G LTE and 5G cell towers in your area, use a cell tower map website called CellMapper or the mobile applications Network Cell Info (Android) and OpenSignal (iOS). Additionally, field test mode on your mobile device and cell tower company websites are two more ways to find cell towers.

How do I stop police from tracking my location of my cell phone? ›

Use a Private Browser

To help prevent this, you can turn off location tracking in your browser's privacy settings or switch to a private browser. Private search engines like DuckDuckGo and MetaGer allow you to surf the web without collecting your IP address, location or search information.

What can police track on your phone? ›

Cell Site Location Information (CSLI) – This information contains details about how your phone connects to cell towers, how this information was obtained and how long the connection lasted. This is how they can find out where you were at a certain time – by tracking your phone's location via cell towers!

What is 1G 2G 3G 4G 5G? ›

1G, 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G are the five generations of mobile networks where G stands for Generation, and the number denotes the generation number. 5G is the latest generation, whereas 1G networks are now obsolete. The cellular technologies GSM, UMTS, LTE and NR enable 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G, respectively.

What are the two types of channels available for making cellular calls? ›

Once the MTSO or mobile switch assigns a voice channel the two frequencies making up the voice channel handle signaling during the actual conversation. You might note then that a call two channels: voice and data.


1. Cell Tower In A Suitcase: How Sonim's "Rapid Deployment Kit" Saves Lives
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2. How To Make Money With Your Drone - Telecommunications
3. How CELL PHONE Works? | What Is A MOBILE Phone? | SMART PHONE | The Dr Binocs Show | Peekaboo Kidz
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4. Macrocell vs. Small Cell vs. Femtocell: 5G Base Stations Compared
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6. How Mobile Communication Works | Cellular Network, Cell Towers and MSCs Explained | Something New
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