Download Singlish - Grammar - Singlish phrases dataset (csv, excel, json) (2022)

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Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Singlish phrases Wah Lau / Walao Wah Lau / Walao Wah Lau / Walao Wah lau is derived from a Hokkien or Teochew phrase that means 'my father'. It is used as an interjection or exclamation at the beginning of a sentence, and it usually has a negative connotation. Wah lau Wah lau Kena Kena Kena Kena can be used as an auxiliary to mark the passive voice in some varieties of Singlish. Kena It is derived from a Malay word that means 'to encounter or to come into physical contact', and is only used with objects that have a negative effect or connotation. Verbs after kena may appear in the infinitive form (i.e. without tense) or as a past participle. It is similar in meaning to passive markers in Chinese, such as Hokkien tio or Mandarin 被 bèi: kena tio bèi kena kena Kena is not used with positive things: Kena kena kena kena Use of kena as in the above examples will not be understood, and may even be greeted with a confused reply: But strike lottery good wat! (But it's a good thing to win the lottery!). But strike lottery good wat! It may be used in vulgar, obscene and offensive contexts, such as: dubious – discuss dubious – discuss kena kena However, when used in sarcasm, kena can be used in apparently positive circumstances, though this is considered grammatically incorrect by the true natives of Singapore. It is mostly incorrectly used by European expatriates or Hong Kong and Mainlanders trying to integrate and assimilate into Singapore society, though with an ironic modicum of success, for example: dubious – discuss dubious – discuss kena When the context is given, Kena may be used without a verb, similar to the colloquial English construction 'I am/you're/he is going to get it.' Kena kena kena Using another auxiliary verb with kena is perfectly acceptable as well: kena kena kena Some examples of Singlish phrases with Kena: Kena The word may be phonetically mispronounced 'kana' by most non Malays, especially by those of the Chinese tongue. Informal Malay may socio linguistically dictate it be pronounced as kene (as in kernel without the r and l), while the word itself in reality has two different meanings; 'to have (to) encounter(ed) something' as how it is explained above or 'to have to (do something)': kene kernel r l 'Kau kena angkat ni.' – You have to carry this.'Joe kena marah tadi.' – Joe just got scolded. kena You have to carry this. kena Joe just got scolded. Singlish, however, is only influenced by the latter application of the word. Tio Tio Tio Tio can be used interchangeably with kena in many scenarios. While kena is often used in negative situations, tio can be used in both positive and negative situations. Tio kena kena tio Tio has a lighter negative tone when used negatively, compared to kena. Tio kena Both mean the same, but kena makes the speaker sound more unhappy with the situation than tio. kena tio Tio also sounds more sympathetic when talking about an unfortunate incident about someone close. Tio Using kena in the following might not be appropriate, as they seem impolite, as if the speaker is mocking the victim. kena One One One The word one is used to emphasise the predicate of the sentence by implying that it is unique and characteristic. It is analogous to the use of particles like 嘅 (ge) or 架 (ga) in Cantonese, 啲 (e) in Hokkien, ( wa) in spoken Japanese, or 的 (de) in some varieties of Mandarin. One used in this way does not correspond to any use of the word 'one' in British, American English, Australian English, etc.: It can be compared to the British usage of 'eh'. It might also be analysed as a relative pronoun, though it occurs at the end of the relative clause instead of the beginning (as in Standard English) one One does not one Oh my gosh! He's so stupid! one I always do everything by habit. one He doesn't go to school (unlike other people). For speakers of Mandarin, 的 (de) can also be used in place of one. one Then Then Then The word then is often pronounced or written as den /dɛn/. When used, it represents different meanings in different contexts. In this section, the word is referred to as den. then den /dɛn/ den i) 'Den' can be synonymous with 'so' or 'therefore'. It is used to replace the Chinese grammatical particle, 才 (see ii). i) When it is intended to carry the meaning of 'therefore', it is often used to explain one's blunder/negative consequences. In such contexts, it is a translation from Chinese '所以'. When used in this context, the 'den' is prolonged twice the usual length in emphasis, as opposed to the short emphasis it is given when used to mean cái. den – I did not do my homework, that's why (therefore) I got a scolding I did not do my homework, that's why (therefore) I got a scolding den – I did not do my homework; I got a scolding after that I did not do my homework; I got a scolding after that den – It is only due to the fact that I did not do my homework that I was scolded. It is only due to the fact that I did not do my homework that I was scolded. Be very careful because 'den' cannot be freely interchanged with 'so'. It will sound grammatically erroneous when employed inappropriately. This is because the grammatical rules in English do not correspond to the grammatical rules in Chinese on a one for one basis. The following examples are inappropriate use of 'den', which will immediately sound grammatically illogical to a Singlish speaker: den den The reason for this is that 'den' often marks a negative, non volitional outcome (either in the future or the past), while the above sentences express volition and are set in the present. Consider the following examples: den I was really tired, which is why I knocked into car. den When I'm late, then do I take a taxi; otherwise I don't take taxis. I only take a taxi when I'm late. ii) 'Den' is also used to describe an action that will be performed later. It is used to replace the Chinese particle, '才'. When used in this context, the den is pronounced in one beat, instead of being lengthened to two beats as in (i). ii) If shortened, the meaning will be changed / incorrectly conveyed. For example, 'I go home liao, 'den' (2 beats) call you' will imbue the subtext with a questionable sense of irony, a lasciviousness for seduction (3 beats), or just general inappropriateness (random 2 beats indicating a Hong Kong comedy influenced moleitou 無理頭 Singaporean sense of humour). den I will call you when I reach home den We'll discuss this later iii) 'Den' can used at the beginning of a sentence as a link to the previous sentence. In this usage, 'den' is used to replace the Mandarin grammatical particle which is approximately equivalent in meaning (but not in grammatical usage) only to 'then,' or '然后' (rán hòu), as in 'ránhòu hor'. In such cases, it often carries a connotation of an exclamation. iii) When used in this context, in formal Singlish, the particle is lengthened to 2 beats to indicate replacement of 'ran2hou4' or 1 beat when used in conjunction with 'hor' as in 'den hor'. It can also be shortened to 1 beat if the other speaker is a fluent Singapore speaker of Singlish (who tends to speak fast and can deduce via contextual clues which form of meaning the use of den is taking on), but the Singlish variant used when spoken to a wider Southeast Asian audience, is lengthening of the word to 2 beats. The subtle usage of these particles differentiates a Malaysian speaking Manglish trying to assimilate into society, and a true blue native born Singaporean (whether it's a Chinese, Indian, Eurasian, Malay or Caucasian speaker of Singlish). In many cases, a mixed child born and bred in Singapore will speak a more subtle form of Singlish (together with the influence of another language such as Dutch, Swedish, German) than a first generation Malaysian of Chinese descent assimilating into Singapore. Den Den iv) 'Den' can be used to return an insult/negative comment back to the originator. When used in such a way, there must first be an insult/negative comment from another party. In such contexts, it is a translation from Chinese '才'. iv) den You're the stupid one den You're the late one v) 'Den?' can be used as a single worded phrase. Even if 'den' is used in a single worded phrase, even with the same pronunciation, it can represent 4 different meanings. It can either be synonymous with 'so what?', or it can be a sarcastic expression that the other party is making a statement that arose from his/her actions, or similarly an arrogant expression which indicating that the other party is stating the obvious, or it can be used as a short form for 'what happened then?'. v) Den? Speakers tend to emphasise the pronunciation of 'n'.Context: A is supposed to meet B before meeting a larger group but A is late for the first meeting Context: A is supposed to meet B before meeting a larger group but A is late for the first meeting Dennn? Speakers have the option of using 'Den' in a phrase, as in 'Ah Bu Den' or 'Ah Den'. In this case it serves approximately the same purpose as 'duh' in American English slang. Den vi) 'Den' can also indicate a conditional (an if then condition), implying an omitted 'if'/'when': vi) den When I'm late, then do I take a taxi; otherwise I don't take taxis. I only take a taxi when I'm late. If you want to see Justin Bieber, then go ! Oi Oi Oi Oi originating from the Hokkien (喂,oe), is commonly used in Singlish, as in other English varieties, to draw attention or to express surprise or indignation. Some examples of the usage of Oi include: Oi Oi As 'Oi' has connotations of disapproval, it is considered to be slightly offensive if it is used in situations where a more polite register is expected, e.g. while speaking to strangers in public, people in the workplace or one's elders. Lah Lah Lah Lah The ubiquitous word lah (/lá/ or /lâ/), sometimes spelled as la and rarely spelled as larh, luh or lurh, is used at the end of a sentence. It originates from the Hokkien word (啦, POJ: lah) used by Chinese people when they speak Singlish, although its usage in Singapore is also been rarely influenced by its occurrence in Malay. It simultaneously softens the force of an utterance and entices solidarity, though it can also have the opposite meaning so it is used to signal power. In addition, there are suggestions that there is more than one lah particle, so there may be a stressed and an unstressed variant and perhaps as many as nine tonal variants, all having a special pragmatic function lah /lá/ /lâ/ la larh luh lurh 啦 lah lah Note that 'lah' is occasionally after a comma for clarity, though true locals never bother with punctuation, because there is never a pause before 'lah'. This is because in Malay, 'lah' is appended to the end of the word and is not a separate word by itself. It must also be noted that although 'lah' is usually spelled in the Malay fashion, its use is more akin to the Hokkien use. It is not related to 'la', found in the Scouse dialect in Liverpool, England, which is short for 'lad'. In Malay, 'lah' is used to change a verb into a command or to soften its tone, particularly when usage of the verb may seem impolite. To drink is minum, but 'Here, drink!' is 'minumlah!'. Similarly, 'lah' is frequently used with imperatives in Singlish: minum lah 'Lah' also occurs frequently with 'Yah' and 'No' (hence 'Yah lah!' and 'No lah!...'). This can, with the appropriate tone, result in a less brusque declaration and facilitate the flow of conversation. 'No more work to do, we go home lah!' However, if the preceding clause is already diminutive or jocular, suffixing it with lah would be redundant and improper: one would not say 'yep lah', 'nope lah', or 'ta lah' (as in the British 'Ta' for 'thank you'). Lah is often used with brusque, short, negative responses: Lah lah lah or Lah is also used for reassurance: Lah lah lah Lah is sometimes used to curse people Lah lah Lah can also be used to emphasise items in a spoken list, appearing after each item in the list. Lah Although lah can appear nearly anywhere, it does not appear with a yes no question. Other particles are used instead: lah ah or not ah Wat Wat Wat The particle wat (/wàt/), also spelled what, is used to remind or contradict the listener, especially when strengthening another assertion that follows from the current one: wat /wàt/ what wat wat wat! It can also be used to strengthen any assertion: wat This usage is noticeably characterised by a low tone on wat, and parallels the assertive Mandarin particle 嘛 in expressions like '不错嘛'. wat Mah Mah Mah Mah (/má/), originating from both Hokkien and Cantonese (嘛, ma), is used to assert that something is obvious and final, and is usually used only with statements that are already patently true. It is often used to correct or cajole, and in some contexts is similar to English's duh. This may seem condescending to the listener: Mah /má/ ma duh mah Can't you see that this choice will also work? mah He knew about it as well, Lor Lor Lor Lor (/lɔ́/), also spelled lorh or loh, from Hokkien (啰, lor), is a casual, sometimes jocular way to assert upon the listener either direct observations or obvious inferences. It also carries a sense of resignation, or alternatively, dismissiveness. that 'it happens this way and can't be helped': Lor /lɔ́/ lorh loh lor lor If you don't do the work, then you're dead! lor Fine, go ahead and do what you want. lor If you're done working, you should go home. (What are you waiting for?) lor ! Leh Leh Leh Leh (/lɛ́/ or /lé/), from Hokkien (leh 咧), is used to soften a command, request, claim, or complaint that may be brusque otherwise: Leh /lɛ́/ or /lé/ leh leh leh leh leh Especially when on a low tone, it can be used to show the speaker's disapproval: leh Hor Hor Hor Hor (/hɔ̨̌/), from Hokkien (乎 honn), also spelled horh, is used to ask for the listener's attention and consent/support/agreement: It is usually pronounced with a low tone. Hor /hɔ̨̌/ horh hor hor hoh Ar Ar Ar Ar (/ǎ/), also spelled arh or ah, is inserted between topic and comment. It often gives a negative tone: Ar /ǎ/ arh ah ah This boy is so rude! Ar (/ǎ/) with a rising tone is used to reiterate a rhetorical question: Ar /ǎ/ ah Why is it like that? / Why are you like that? Ar (/ā/) with a mid level tone, on the other hand, is used to mark a genuine question that does require a response: ('or not' can also be used in this context.) Ar /ā/ ar Hah Hah Hah Hah (/hǎ/), also spelled har, originating from the British English word huh or Hokkien (hannh 唅), is used to express disbelief, shock or used in a questioning manner. Hah /hǎ/ har huh hannh Har? What? Is it true that he played truant (=ponteng, shortened to 'pon' and converted into past tense, hence 'ponned') yesterday? Har? What? How did he end up being caned? Meh Meh Meh Meh (/mɛ́/), from Cantonese (咩, meh), is used to form questions expressing surprise or scepticism: Meh /mɛ́/ meh meh meh meh Siol Siol Siol Siol is not a vulgar word. It is an adaptation of the word 'Siul' (which means whistles). Often misunderstood as the word 'Sial', Siol has no meaning at all (least if it's spelt Siul.) Siol is used to avoid using the word 'Sial', which is a vulgarity and not acceptable in speech among most Malay families, and can be compared to the word 'fuck'. Sial is considered extremely rude if applied as a 'sentence enhancer'. To avoid getting 'back hand' (slapped across the face) by the elders between the families, the word 'Siol' was created. Siol Siol Siol 'back hand' Example, Example, Using 'Sial' while having family dinner at home, a seven year old child says to his/her mother, 'Apa 'sial' Mak bebual?' 'What the fuck are you talking about, mom?' risk of getting 'back hand' from parents is highest. back hand' Using Siol same scenario as above,'Apa Siol Mak bebual?' 'What the whistle are you talking about, mom?' risk of punishment from parents is lowest. Siol Siol Siah Siah Siah /sjà/, also spelled sia or siah, is used to express envy or emphasis. It is a derivative of the Malay vulgar word 'sial' (derivative of the parent, used interchangeably but sometimes may imply a stronger emphasis). Originally, it is often used by Malay peers in informal speech between them, sometimes while enraged, and other times having different implications depending on the subject matter: /sjà/ sia siah 'Kau ade problem ke ape, sial?' – Do you have a problem or what? (negative, enraged)'Sial ah, Joe bawak iPad ni ari.' – Whoa, Joe brought an iPad today. (positive, envy)'Takde lah sial.' – No way, man. or I don't have it, man. (positive, neutral)'Joe kene marah sial.' – Joe got scolded, man. (positive, emphasis) sial Do you have a problem or what? Sial Whoa, Joe brought an iPad today. sial No way, man. I don't have it, man. sial Joe got scolded, man. Malays may also pronounce it without the l, not following the ia but rather a nasal aah. This particular form of usage is often seen in expressing emphasis. There is a further third application of it, in that a k is added at the end when it will then be pronounced saak with the same nasal quality only when ending the word. It is similarly used in emphasis. l ia aah k saak However, Singlish itself takes influence only from the general expression of the term without any negative implication, and non Malay speakers (or Malays speaking to non Malays) pronounce it either as a nasal sia or simply siah: sia siah sia He's damn capable. sia Goodness me (=Wahlau)! That was a close shave (=heng)! Sai Sai Sai /sâi/Also from Hokkien, it literally means excrement. This is also used in 'kena sai', which means to be humiliated (see earlier part of this section for the definition of 'kena'). kena sai kena Siao Siao Siao /siâo/derived from HokkienSiao is a common word in Singlish. Literally, it means crazy. Siao Siao siao Summary Summary Summary of discourse and other particles:

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Number of Data columns : 3 Number of Data rows : 21
Categories : economy, demography, politics, knowledge

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